Istanbul, a fascinating city built on two Continents, divided by the BosphorusStrait. This is one of the greatest cities in the world where you can see a modern western city combined with a traditional eastern vibe, it’s a melting pot of many civilizations and different people. Since the Republic in 1923, Istanbul continued to grow and today it boosted its population over 14 million people living in this spread out city. This makes Istanbul the largest city of Turkey and one of the biggest cities in the world.


Expanding the ancient Roman colony of Byzantium by the order of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the imperial city of Constantinople was for nearly a thousand years the last remaining outpost of the Roman (later termed Eastern Roman or Byzantine) Empire. It was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II (who was entitled as ‘ Mehmed the Conqueror’) on 29 May 1453, an event used to mark the end of the Middle Ages. It was the nerve centre for military campaigns that were to enlarge the Ottoman Empire dramatically. By the mid 1500s, Istanbul, with a population of almost half a million, was a major cultural, political, and commercial centre. Ottoman rule continued until it was defeated in WWI and Istanbul was occupied by the allies. When the Republic of Turkey was born in 1923 after the War of Independence, with the Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s leadership, Istanbul was taken back and the capital was moved to the city of Ankara.

1. Istanbul (ancient Byzantium) was founded on Seven Hills like Rome.
2. Istanbul is the only city in the world which is both in Europe and Asia geographically.
3. Istanbul is one of the most populated cities in the world, with around 15 million
population, which is more than 177 countries around the world.
4. Istanbul was the capital city of three major Empires: Eastern Roman Empire,
Byzantine Empire, and Ottoman Empire during their rule.
5. Istanbul has the third oldest subway in the world, built in 1875. It's 573 meters long
and located in Tunel neighborhood at Beyoglu district.
6. Grand Bazaar is the biggest old covered bazaar in the world, with over 3.000 shops.
7. Four bronze horses which are decorating today San Marco Cathedral in Venice, were
taken from Istanbul (Constantinople back then) by the Crusaders in the 13th century.
8. During the Middle Ages in the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul had over 1.400 public toilets
in the city meanwhile there weren't any even at the palaces in France and other
European cities.



Istanbul has a great public transportation network and you can go to any attraction with it easily. One mostly uses Metro or Metrobus in the city, and also Marmaray and usual busses. Metro, Metrobus, and Marmaray has variant connection points that you can interchange.

1. Metro
Both European and Anatolian side of Istanbul has Metro, which is basically the subway. And they are connected with Marmaray from one continent to the other. In the Anatolian side, where the conference will take place, Metro goes from Kartal to Kadikoy and by the time you arrive here there will be a second one from Uskudar to Sancaktepe. You will not commonly use these routes to get to the University, only if you arrange your stay on the route of “Uskudar-Sancaktepe Metro” then you will have to go to Uskudar to get the bus to the University.

2. Metrobus
Metrobus is a bus line which has its own lane and doesn’t go into the main route (except the Bosphorus Bridge). It connects the far end of the European side to the heart of the Anatolian side: Kadikoy. This line would not commonly used by the visitors unless they arrange their stay in the European side and far from the Marmara Sea. Then they would have to take Metrobus to the Bosphorus Bridge and after that take the bus to the University.

3. Marmaray
Marmaray is the connection point of two continents via an underwater tube. It takes its name from the same thing we took our university’s name: The Marmara Sea. It connects two Metro lines of two sides. In the European side, the connection point is “Yenikapi” and in the Anatolian side it is “Ayrilik Cesmesi”. With the Marmaray line, you can also connect to Tramvay (cable railway) from “Sirkeci” and go to the Blue Mosque, Hagia Sophia, Sultanahmet, Karakoy, Galata, Grand Bazaar, and many more of the most loved tourist attractions of Istanbul. Marmaray is useful if you arrange your stay in the European side and not near the sea. Then you can take the Metro to Yenikapi and then take the Marmaray to Uskudar, after that take the bus to the University.

4. Busses
There are busses to everywhere in Istanbul and it is easy to use. Two main bus stops are in Uskudar and Kadikoy. From Uskudar, you can take 15, 15M, 15KC, 15 SN, 15P, 15T, 15N, 15H, and 15Y directly to the University. From Kadikoy, you can take 15F, 14M, and 14R directly to the University.

5. Apps
There are several apps you can use to get around the city and they are the best way to find a route for your best interest. They show where the busses are, the times they will arrive, their frequency, any kind of construction or maintanence, any kind of delay, and also notifications about when to get off or on. The apps are:

1. Citymapper
2. Moovit
3. Mobiett

Here is the map of the transportation line of Istanbul.